Get familiar with CiviCampaign and the associated components, survey and petition
A campaign is quite simple. It is like a tag that can be applied all over CiviCRM
It has a start date and an optional end date
A group of contacts can be assigned to the campaign
Like other CiviCRM objects, it has types and statuses
Useful for grouping different activities under the same banner
Primarily a way to collect signatures online.
Other information can be collected via a contact profile and an activity profile
A way of administering offline data collection. Offline means
Survey also has functionality for working with teams people carrying out the surveys, i.e. ability to reserve respondents to specific individuals.
Petition is not an online survey. It is a petition. And is optimised as such.
If you want to collect online data from individuals, you would be better off using webform.